In a recent study by D’Onofrio et al. it was found that none of those participating in the study who had cluster headaches experienced Restless Legs Syndrome. Restless Legs Syndrome is one of the most common neurological conditions and movement disorders; it is characterized by unpleasant sensations inside the legs, mainly at times of rest such as bedtime, which result in an irresistible need to move the limbs in order to stop these sensations. Brain imaging studies have suggested that Restless Legs Syndrome may be generated by dopamine dysfunction and alterations to melatonin secretion locally within the central nervous system. It is because both cluster headaches and Restless Legs Syndrome are characterized by alterations in melatonin secretion and frequent nocturnal onset, that a possible pathogenetic and clinical connection between the two conditions was drawn. The study found a 0% prevalence rate of Restless Legs Syndrome in patients with cluster headaches, as opposed to a 12% prevalence rate in the patients in the control group who did not experience cluster headaches. The group conjectured that reduced nocturnal melatonin in cluster headache patients likely results in sustained dopaminergic activity which could be a protective factor against the development of Restless Legs Syndrome. It was concluded that further investigation of the role of melatonin in both cluster headaches and Restless Legs Syndrome is needed and could potentially produce interesting results.

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